Janice Kapp Perry Collection
Heaven on Earth
I Walk By Faith
Learn of Me
Love One Another
Song of Testimony
The Voice of the Spirit
I'll Find You My Friend
No Ordinary Man
I'm Trying To Be Like Jesus
In Quiet Grove
I'll Find You My Friend
In The Arms Of His Love
I Will Stand as a Witness of Christ
His Image in Your Countenance
How Great Shall Be Your Joy
Mechanism of Culture
Language and Writing
- Kessing defines language as "a vocal symbolism of speech with its related bodily gestures and mechanical signals which gives precision and finesse to communication.
- The American College Dictionary defines language as "any set or system of symbols used in more or less uniform fashion by a number of people who are thus enabled to communicate intelligently with one another."
2. Characteristics of Language
- How language came to be
- A part of culture
- Growth and development
3. Elements of Language
- Phonology - a system consisting of sounds in human speech with significant meanings. Every sound or set of sounds has a meaning.
- Grammar - the way of putting together words into a sentence according to definite rules so that a complete thought is expressed.
- Vocabulary - the meaning system of language; the collection of words of a language together with their respective significant and meaning.
4. Function of Language
- Promotion of nationalism
- Promotion of cooperation
- Promotion of peace
- Accumulation of knowledge
5. Mechanical Aids in Oral Communication
- Video tape recording
- Motion picture
- Sound system
- Writing is representing meaningful sound in a language by conventionalized graphic symbols.
- This was invented and underwent evolutionary process.
7. Development of Writing
- Picture Writing or Pictograph
- Logographic Writing
- Ideographic Writing
- Phonetic Writing
- Alphabetic Writing
8. Mechanical Aids to Writing
- Printing press
- Photocopying machine
9. Function and Importance of Writing
- Long distance communication.
- Recording and preservation of information materials.
- Mass production of information materials.
- Facilitation of learning.
10.Mechanical Aids in both Oral Communication and Writing
- Cellular phone
- Android phone
- Lap top computer
- Multimedia computer
- Smart TV
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Elements of Culture
- Language means of communicating information and experiences and passing on values and tradition.
- One of the strongest unifying forces for a culture.
- Language differences within culture: Dialect - local form of a language used in a particular place or by certain group.
- System of belief and worship.
- It can serve as a unifying and dividing force.
- it shapes daily life in the aspect of moral values, religious celebration and holidays as well as cultural expressions such as painting, sculpture, architecture music and dance.
- Monotheism is a belief in one god.
- Polytheism is a believe in many gods.
- Atheism is a belief in no god.
- Major world religions are Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
- Standard behavior which each society establishes.
- Formal norms: written and severe.
- Informal norms: understood but not written, generally not severe.
- Mores: necessary for the welfare of the society.
- Folkways: which govern every day behavior.
- Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norms.
- Positive: pay, praises, incentives, word of gratitude, acknowledgment, awards and rewards.
- Negative: fines, penalties, suspensions, threats, imprisonment, exile.
- Collective concepts of what is good, bad, desirable, proper, improper, etc.
- Influence people's behavior.
- Criteria by which we evaluate others.
- Values change over time.
6. Art and Literature
- Teach about a culture's values.
- Promotes cultural pride and unity.
- Be careful of:
- Ethnocentric : judging other culture by the standards of your own. Assuming your culture to be the best.
- Racism : belief that one racial group is naturally superior to another. Race is a culture thing it does not actually exist.
7. Social Groups
Primary social groups are:
- Social classes
- Ethnic group
- A system through which society maintains social order, provides public services, ensures national security and supports its economic well being.
- Democracy : people have supreme power.
- Republic : people choose leaders to represent them.
- Dictatorship : a ruler or a group holds power by force.
9. Economic System
- Four types:
- Traditional : people produce most of what they need to survive.
- Market : basic economical questions are answered by buying / selling goods and services.
- Command : government controls answers to economic questions.
- Mixed : individuals makes some economic decisions, the government make others.
10. Economic Activity
- people in all cultures participates in economic activities in order to ensure that their needs are met - food, shelter, water, etc.
- Geographers analyze how a culture
- utilizes its natural resources to meet their needs.
- produce, obtain, uses, and sell goods and services.