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Elements of Culture
- Language means of communicating information and experiences and passing on values and tradition.
- One of the strongest unifying forces for a culture.
- Language differences within culture: Dialect - local form of a language used in a particular place or by certain group.
- System of belief and worship.
- It can serve as a unifying and dividing force.
- it shapes daily life in the aspect of moral values, religious celebration and holidays as well as cultural expressions such as painting, sculpture, architecture music and dance.
- Monotheism is a belief in one god.
- Polytheism is a believe in many gods.
- Atheism is a belief in no god.
- Major world religions are Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
- Standard behavior which each society establishes.
- Formal norms: written and severe.
- Informal norms: understood but not written, generally not severe.
- Mores: necessary for the welfare of the society.
- Folkways: which govern every day behavior.
- Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norms.
- Positive: pay, praises, incentives, word of gratitude, acknowledgment, awards and rewards.
- Negative: fines, penalties, suspensions, threats, imprisonment, exile.
- Collective concepts of what is good, bad, desirable, proper, improper, etc.
- Influence people's behavior.
- Criteria by which we evaluate others.
- Values change over time.
6. Art and Literature
- Teach about a culture's values.
- Promotes cultural pride and unity.
- Be careful of:
- Ethnocentric : judging other culture by the standards of your own. Assuming your culture to be the best.
- Racism : belief that one racial group is naturally superior to another. Race is a culture thing it does not actually exist.
7. Social Groups
Primary social groups are:
- Social classes
- Ethnic group
- A system through which society maintains social order, provides public services, ensures national security and supports its economic well being.
- Democracy : people have supreme power.
- Republic : people choose leaders to represent them.
- Dictatorship : a ruler or a group holds power by force.
9. Economic System
- Four types:
- Traditional : people produce most of what they need to survive.
- Market : basic economical questions are answered by buying / selling goods and services.
- Command : government controls answers to economic questions.
- Mixed : individuals makes some economic decisions, the government make others.
10. Economic Activity
- people in all cultures participates in economic activities in order to ensure that their needs are met - food, shelter, water, etc.
- Geographers analyze how a culture
- utilizes its natural resources to meet their needs.
- produce, obtain, uses, and sell goods and services.