2014/04/03

Elements of Culture (Mga Elemento ng Kultura)

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Elements of Culture
1. Language
  • Language means of communicating information and experiences and passing on values and tradition.
  • One of the strongest unifying forces for a culture.
  • Language differences within culture: Dialect - local form of a language used in a particular place or by certain group. 
2. Religion
  • System of belief and worship.
  • It can serve as a unifying and dividing force.
  • it shapes daily life in the aspect of moral values, religious celebration and holidays as well as cultural expressions such as painting, sculpture, architecture music and dance.
  • Monotheism is a belief in one god.
  • Polytheism is a believe in many gods.
  • Atheism is a belief in no god.  
  • Major world religions are Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
3. Norms
  • Standard behavior which each society establishes.
  • Formal norms: written and severe.
  • Informal norms: understood but not written, generally not severe.
  • Mores: necessary for the welfare of the society.
  • Folkways: which govern every day behavior.
4.  Sanctions
  • Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norms.
  • Positive: pay, praises, incentives, word of gratitude, acknowledgment, awards and rewards.
  • Negative: fines, penalties, suspensions, threats, imprisonment, exile. 
5. Values
  • Collective concepts of what is good, bad, desirable, proper, improper, etc.
  • Influence people's behavior.
  • Criteria by which we evaluate others.
  • Values change over time. 
6. Art and Literature
  • Teach about a culture's values.
  • Promotes cultural pride and unity.
  • Be careful of:
  1. Ethnocentric : judging other culture by the standards of your own. Assuming your culture to be the best.
  2. Racism : belief that one racial group is naturally superior to another. Race is a culture thing it does not actually exist.
7. Social Groups

      Primary social groups are:
  • Family
  • Social classes
  • Ethnic group
8. Government
  • A system through which society maintains social order, provides public services, ensures national security and supports its economic well being.
  • Types:
  1. Democracy : people have supreme power.
  2. Republic : people choose leaders to represent them.
  3. Dictatorship : a ruler or a group holds power by force.
9. Economic System
  • Four types:
  1. Traditional : people produce most of what they need to survive.
  2. Market : basic economical questions are answered by buying / selling goods and services.
  3. Command : government controls answers to economic questions.
  4. Mixed : individuals makes some economic decisions, the government make others. 
10. Economic Activity
  • people in all cultures participates in economic activities in order to ensure that their needs are met - food, shelter, water, etc.
  • Geographers analyze how a culture
  1. utilizes its natural resources to meet their needs.
  2. produce, obtain, uses, and sell goods and services. 

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